達明安•赫斯特

達明安•赫斯特1965年生於布里斯托,在英格蘭北部列斯成長。1986至89年間先後就讀該市之雅各•克來瑪藝術學院和倫敦金匠學院。現於德文郡及倫敦生活和工作。1988年在學期間,策劃了經典藝術展覽「凝」。1995年榮獲倫敦泰特美術館「特納獎」。

1980年代末90年代初年輕藝術家們組織並策劃了一系列展覽,而「凝」是當中最早期的展覽之一。這個展覽在倫敦東區廢棄的工廈裡舉行,其展區面積與博物館相若。這系列展覽,標示著英國藝術風貌的改變。往後十年,不少參展藝術家也聲名遠播,而赫斯特則成為他那一輩中最著名的藝術家,可謂家傳戶曉。

赫斯特的作品素材廣泛,形式多樣,所涉獵的題材有愛、慾望、生命和死亡等重大課題。單就標題也可見一斑,比如他最著名作品《生者對死者無動於衷》(1991),當中一條十二呎長的虎鯊被浸泡在一缸甲醛裡。同年,其個人展覽「愛與不愛」在倫敦西區一間廢置的商店裡,分上下層兩個房間展出。下層房間展示了蝴蝶標本被崁入漆上光面單色油彩的畫布上;而上層則展示著各種異國的蝴蝶,牠們整個生命週期,由孵化到覓食、成長、繁殖以至死亡都一一陳列,展覽還有其他裝置作品,諸如展於櫃內的醫藥製品、瓶子、魚箱,及浸泡在甲醛裡的動物殘軀、貝殼和煙蒂等。

除了雕塑,赫斯特亦嘗試繪畫及版畫的創作。他的《旋轉》系列,利用了機器產生離心力,把顏料分散灑落在畫布上,原理和他的蝕刻版畫集《在旋渦中》一樣。此外,與醫學和藥物有關的素材都常在他的作品中出現。他的第一部主要版畫作品《最後的晚餐》 (1999),十三幅網印版畫就是以藥品包裝設計為依據。赫斯特選擇這些藥盒純粹因為它的外觀而並非藥物的成份,每個藥盒上的藥物名稱均被日常英國餐廳食物名稱所代替。

在1992年第三屆國際伊斯坦堡雙年展中,赫斯特展出相當多作品。1993年第四十五屆威尼斯雙年展,赫斯特在阿柏度展區展覽了《母子分離》,當中母牛與小牛被切開成兩半,分別泡在四缸甲醛堙C另外,赫斯特亦曾參與多個重要聯展,當中包括:「二十世紀英國雕塑」展(國立網球場美術館,巴黎,1996);「感覺:薩奇英國青年藝術家藏品」展(皇家美術學院,倫敦,1997);「單數形式(有時重複) 」(古根漢博物館,紐約,2004)。近期舉行的個展計有:「一個時代的終結」(高古軒畫廊,紐約);「黑暗樹木」(伊拉里奧.格爾亞拉畫廊,萊比錫和墨西哥城,2010);「無所謂」(白立方畫廊,倫敦,2009);「為了上帝的愛」(國立博物館,阿姆斯特丹,2008)。2004年,赫斯特在拿波里考古博物館舉行了首個個人回顧展「極苦與狂喜:1989-2004作品選輯」。

Damien Hirst

Damien Hirst was born in Bristol in 1965, and grew up in Leeds in the north of England. He studied at Jacob Kramer College of Art in Leeds and later Goldsmiths College, University of London, 1986-9. Hirst lives and works in Devon and London. He curated the now legendary exhibition Freeze in 1988 whilst still a student and in 1995 he was awarded the Turner Prize at the Tate Gallery, London.

Freeze was the first of a group of exhibitions organised and curated by young artists in the late 1980s and early 1990s which presented work in museum sized spaces of disused industrial buildings in the East End of London. These exhibitions signalled a change in the artistic landscape of Britain and many of the exhibited artists went on to establish international reputations in the subsequent decade, while Hirst was to become the most famous artist of his generation and a household name.

Hirst works with a wide array of materials and across numerous art forms. He tackles big subjects of love, desire, life and death, and his titles say as much, as in his most renowned work The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living (1991), which features a 12-foot tiger shark floating in a glass tank of formaldehyde. His solo exhibition of the same year, In and Out of Love, took place in two rooms, one above the other, in a disused shop in the West End of London. In the lower space, dead butterflies were embedded in the glossy paint of monochrome canvases, while upstairs the complete life cycle of exotic butterflies was acted out as they hatched from pupae, fed, bred and eventually died. Other installation works from this time include wall cabinets displaying such items as pharmaceutical products, bottles and tanks of fish and sections of animals in formaldehyde, shells, and cigarette ends.

In parallel to his sculptural work, Hirst has continued to experiment with works in two dimensions, producing a vast number of paintings and prints. For his Spin series, paintings are made with a machine that centrifugally disperses the paint that is steadily poured onto a shaped canvas surface. This is the same principle we see in his In a Spin portfolio of etchings. Medical and pharmaceutical references feature prominently in his work. For his first major body of prints, The Last Supper (1999), Hirst based the thirteen screenprints on the designs of specific pharmaceutical packets which were chosen for how they looked rather than the properties of the drug. In each, the original drug name is replaced by everyday British café food.

A substantial showing of his work was included in the Third International Istanbul Biennial in 1992. He was selected for the Aperto Section of the 54th Venice Biennale in 1993, where he showed Mother and Child Divided, a work consisting of a cow and calf split in two and displayed in four vitrines of formaldehyde. Hirst’s work has been shown in many important group shows including Twentieth Century British Sculpture at the Galerie National du Jeu de Paume, Paris in 1996; Sensation: Young British Artists from the Saatchi Collection at the Royal Academy of Arts, London in 1997; and Singular Forms (Sometimes Repeated), Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York in 2004. Recent solo exhibitions include End of An Era, Gagosian Gallery, New York; Dark Trees, Galería Hilario Galguera, Leipzig and Mexico City, 2010; Nothing Matters, White Cube, London, 2009; and For the Love of God, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, 2008. In 2004, Hirst had his first solo retrospective The Agony and The Ecstasy: Selected Works from 1989-2004, at the Archaeological Museum, Naples.